Some sources can be considered as primary sources or secondary sources, depending on how the users treat them.
Primary sources are original objects or documents. They include historical and legal documents, eyewitness accounts, memoirs, letters, autobiographies, statistical data, pieces of creative writing, art objects, etc.
Secondary sources include interpretations of, or discussions/criticism about certain original material. They can be articles in newspapers or magazines, book or movie reviews, or scholarly articles. To learn more about primary and secondary sources, read:
Citation management tools allow you to build a database of your references and build your bibliography while writing a research paper. Click here to learn more about citation mangement tools. HOWEVER, please note that these tools are not perfect; you need to manually check to finalize your bibliography.
"Ethics, copyright laws, and courtesy to readers require authors to identify the sources of direct quotations or paraphrases and of any facts or opinions not generally known or easily checked."
---The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edition, "The Purpose of Source Citations."
There are several different style manuals. This instruction is based on the style of The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edition, but please consult with your instructor what manual and style is required for the course.
Click the below to find several citation samples.
This box lists sample footnotes.The numbers at the left corresponds to the note numbers in the text (which is not provided), and these samples have been shortened. You don't need to provide full ciation in the notes if there is a separately prepared bibliography at the end of your paper that includes all of the referred works. Additional comments are inserted in red.
To see Chicago-Style Citation Quick Guide, click here.
1. Tsutsui, Godzilla on My Mind, 108. (book)
COMMENT: Note that the book title is in italic.
2. Fowler, Murōji, 99-100.
3. Rath, “Rural Japan amd Agriculture," 480.
COMMENT: Although this shortened ciation does not make it clear, this work is a book chapter. See how this source is cited in the samples for bibliography.
4. Ibid., 482.
COMMENT: The abbreviation "ibid." usually refers to a single work cited in the note immediately preceeding.
COMMENT: this means the fifth note is referring to the same page as the fourth note.
6. Kaneko, “New Art Collectives," 312-313.
7. Rath, Food and Fantasy, 158.
8. Kaneko, "Under the Banner of the New Order," 201.
COMMENT: Note that this source is written by the same author in the 6th footnote but is a different work.
This box lists sample bibliographies in the Chicago style. Some of the sources listed here are also used as samples for the footnotes/endnotes in the box above. Please note that the sources are listed in alphabetical order by the author, then title. Additional comments are incerted in red.
Fowler, Sherry. Murōji: Rearranging Art and History at the Japanese Buddhist Temple. Honolulu: University of Hawai’I Press, 2005.
Kaneko, Maki. “Mukai Junkichi’s Transformation from a War to Minka (Folk House) Painter.” Archives of Asian Art 61 (2011): 37-60. Accessed Feb. 25, 2014. doi: 10.1353/aaa.2011.0006.
COMMENT: When citing an electronic journal article, provide DOI (or URL, if no DOI is available). Chicago does not require access dates for formally published e-sources. But when they are included, they should immediately precede the DOI or URL.
———. “New Art Collectives in the Service on the War: the Formation of Art Organizations during the Asia-Pacific War.” Positions: East Asia Cultures Critique 21, no. 2 (Spring 2013): 309-350.
COMMENT: For successive entries by the same author, editor, etc., use a 3-em (———) dashes to replace the name after the first appearance.
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution. “Portraiture Now: Asian American Portraits of Encounter.” Accessed Mar. 5, 2014. http://www.npg.si.edu/exhibit/encounter/index.html.
COMMENT: When including a website or e-resource that are not formally published, include as much of the following information as possible: the title of the page, the author of the contents, the owner/sponsor of the site, a URL, and a publication date. If the publication date cannot be determined, include an access date.
Rath, Eric. Food and Fantasy in Early Modern Japan. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2010.
———. “Reevaluating Rikyū: Kaiseki and the Origins of Japanese Cuisine.” Journal of Japanese Studies 39, no. 1 (Winter 2013): 67-96. Project Muse.
COMMENT: When citing an electronic journal article but the DOI or URL is not available, provide the name of the database (and any identification number supplied by the database in parentheses).
———. “Rural Japan and Agriculture.” In A Companion to Japanese History, ed. William Tsutsui, 477-492. Malden, MS: Blackwell, 2007.
COMMENT: Note that this is a book chapter, not a journal article. Provide the title of the work in Italics, the name of the editor, and the pages of the cited chapter.
Tsutsui, William. Godzilla on My Mind: Fifty Years of the King of Monsters. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004.
For this style of citing, you may not be required to prepare a separate bibliography. If this is the case, full details must be given in a note at first mention of any work cited. And subsequent citations are to be in a short form. Consider the numbers at the left and correspond to the numbers on the note in the text (which is not provided). Some of the sources listed here are also used as samples for footnotes/endnotes in the box above. Additional comments are incerted in red.
1. William M. Tsutsui, Godzilla on My Mind: Fifty Years of the King of Monsters (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004), 108. (book)
2. Sherry Fowler, Murōji: Rearranging Art and History at the Japanese Buddhist Temple (Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 2005), 99-100.
3. Eric Rath, “Rural Japan and Agriculture," in A Companion to Japanese History, ed. William M. Tsutsui (Malden, MS: Blackwell, 2007), 480.
4. Ibid., 482.
COMMENT: The abbreviation "ibid." usually refers to the same work cited in the note immediately preceeding.
COMMENT: You do not need to add a page number after, if it is the same page number as the previous note, and in this case, the fourth note.
6. Maki Kaneko, “New Art Collectives in the Service on the War: the Formation of Art Organizations during the Asia-Pacific War," Positions: East Asia Cultures Critique 21, no. 2 (Spring 2013): 312-313.
7. Eric Rath, Food and Fantasy in Early Modern Japan, (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2010), 158.
8. Maki Kaneko, "Under the Banner of the New Order: Uchida Iwao's Responses to the Asia-Pacific War and Japan's Defeat," in Art and War in Japan and its Empire, 1931-1960, eds., Asako Ikeda, Aya Louisa McDonald and Ming Tiampo (Leiden: Brill, 2012), 201.
COMMENT: Note that this source is written by the author in the 6th footnote but is a different work.
9. Rath, Food and Fantasy, 159.
COMMENT: This source is already cited in footnote 7, so shorten the citation and even the title.
This box lists sample reference list Chicago style. Some of the sources listed here are also used as samples for footnotes/endnotes in the box above. Please note that the sources are listed in alphabetical order by the author, then date. Additional comments are incerted in red.To see Chicago-Style Citation Quick Guide, click here.