HA 589: Japanese Artists Encounters with Europe and the United States: Writing Guides

Guide for students and instructors of HA 589 on how to find research materials.

Primary vs. Secondary Sources

Some sources can be considered as primary sources or secondary sources, depending on how the users treat them.

Primary sources are original objects or documents. They include historical and legal documents, eyewitness accounts, memoirs, letters, autobiographies, statistical data, pieces of creative writing, art objects, etc.

Secondary sources include interpretations of, or discussions/criticism about certain original material. They can be articles in newspapers or magazines, book or movie reviews, or scholarly articles. To learn more about primary and secondary sources, read:

Ithaca College Library. "Primary and Secondary Sources." Undated. http://www.ithacalibrary.com/sp/subjects/primary.

KU Writing Center. "Primary vs. Secondary Sources." Last modified July 2011. http://www.writing.ku.edu/~writing/guides/primary.shtml.

University of California Santa Cruz. "Distinguish between Primary and Secondary Sources." Undated. http://guides.library.ucsc.edu/primarysecondary.

Citaion Tools

Citation management tools allow you to build a database of your references and build your bibliography while writing a research paper. Click here to learn more about citation mangement tools. HOWEVER, please note that these tools are not perfect; you need to manually check to finalize your bibliography.


"Ethics, copyright laws, and courtesy to readers require authors to identify the sources of direct quotations or paraphrases and of any facts or opinions not generally known or easily checked."

---The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edition, "The Purpose of Source Citations." 

There are several different style manuals, but HA 589 requires to follow the notes and bibliography style of The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edition.

To see Chicago-Style Citation Quick Guide, click here.

See the PDF below to see a sample of text with notes and bibliography.

Style Sample: Footnotes/Endnotes (Shortened)

This box lists sample footnotes. Please note that the numbers at the left correspond to the note numbers in the text, and that these samples have been shortened. You don't need to provide full ciation in notes if a separately prepared bibliography includes all referred works. Additional comments are inserted in red.

1. Tsutsui, Godzilla on My Mind, 108. (book)

      COMMENT: Note that the book title is in italic.

2. Fowler, Murōji, 99-100.

3. Rath, “Rural Japan amd Agriculture," 480.

      COMMENT: Although this shortened ciation does not make it clear, this work is a book chapter.  See how this source is cited in the samples for bibliography.

4. Ibid., 33.

      COMMENT: The abbreviation "ibid." usually refers to a single work cited in the note immediately preceeding.

5. Ibid.

      COMMENT: this means the fifth note is referring to the same page as the fourth note.

6. Kaneko, “New Art Collectives," 312-313.

7. Rath, Food and Fantasy, 158.

8. Kaneko, "Under the Banner of the New Order," 201.

COMMENT: Note that this source is written by the author in the 6th footnote but is a different work.


Style Sample: Bibliography

This box lists sample bibliography in Chicago style. Some of the sources listed here are also used as samples for footnotes/endnotes in the box above. Please note that the sources are listed in alphabetical order by the author, then title. Additional comments are incerted in red.

Fowler, Sherry. Murōji: Rearranging Art and History at the Japanese Buddhist Temple. Honolulu: University of Hawai’I Press, 2005.

Kaneko, Maki. “Mukai Junkichi’s Transformation from a War to Minka (Folk House) Painter.” Archives of Asian Art 61 (2011): 37-60. Accessed Feb. 25, 2014. doi: 10.1353/aaa.2011.0006.

COMMENT:When citing electronic journal article, provide DOI (or URL, if no DOI is available).Chicago does not require access dates for formally published e-sources. But when they are included, they should immediately precede the DOI or URL.

———. “New Art Collectives in the Service on the War: the Formation of Art Organizations during the Asia-Pacific War.” Positions: East Asia Cultures Critique 21, no. 2 (Spring 2013): 309-350.

COMMENT: For successive entries by the same author, editor, etc., use a 3-em dashes to replace the name after the first appearance.

National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution. “Portraiture Now: Asian American Portraits of Encounter.” Accessed Mar. 5, 2014. http://www.npg.si.edu/exhibit/encounter/index.html.

COMMENT: When including websites or e-resources other than the types formally published documents, include as much of the following as can be determined: the title of the page, the author of the contents, the owner/sponsor of the site, a URL, and a publication date. If a publication date cannot be determined, include an access date.

Rath, Eric. Food and Fantasy in Early Modern Japan. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2010.

———. “Reevaluating Rikyū: Kaiseki and the Origins of Japanese Cuisine.” Journal of Japanese Studies 39, no. 1 (Winter 2013): 67-96. Project Muse.

COMMENT:When citing electronic journal article but DOI or URL is not available, provide the name of the database (and any identification number supplied by the database in parentheses).

———. “Rural Japan and Agriculture.” In A Companion to Japanese History, ed. William Tsutsui, 477-492. Malden, MS: Blackwell, 2007.

COMMENT: Note that this is a book chapter, not a journal article. Provide the title which contains this work in Italic, the name of the editor, and the pages of the cited chapter.

Tsutsui, William. Godzilla on My Mind: Fifty Years of the King of Monsters. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004.