Literatura Medieval - Christian, Islamic, and Jewish cultures in the Iberian peninsula: Culture Resources

Spanish literature and culture to 1500. Jewish-Christian-Muslim coexistence and the multi-ethnic environment in Iberia in the Middle Ages.

Al-Andalus and the Christian kingdoms

Al-Andalus (green) and Christian kingdoms circa 1000 AD

By 1031 AD, Christians had begun to drive the Moors to the south and drew nearer to retaking Toledo.