Literatura Medieval - Christian, Islamic, and Jewish cultures in the Iberian peninsula: Toledo

Spanish literature and culture to 1500. Jewish-Christian-Muslim coexistence and the multi-ethnic environment in Iberia in the Middle Ages.

Images of Toledo

Islamic Spain - video

Roman bridge

Roman bridge crossing the Tagus river leading into Toledo


The area known today as Spain and Portugal was conquered by Muslims coming from the African peninsula in 711. The area was under Roman rule in the 7th century.  After the Moorish invasion, the portion of the Iberian peninsula under Islamic rule was referred to as Al-Andalus. 


Islamic Toledo

Mezquita del Cristo de la Luz

Mosque built in the 10th century.  This former mosque has had few changes since it was built.

Timeline of the Reconquista

The map below roughly depicts the timeline of the re-conquest of Spain by Christians.

Overview of the Iberian peninsula from 700-

By Time Period

  • 7th-century, Roman rule in the Iberian peninsula
  • 711 - Moors invade Iberia, crossing over from the African peninsula.  Battle of Guadalete marks the fall of Roman rule in Iberia
  • 731- Toledo falls to Muslim rule
  • 756- Abd al-Rahman unites all cities in Muslim Spain
  • 800 - Series of civil wars in Al-Andalus
  • 1085 - King Alfonso VI reconquers Toledo and controls center of Al-Andalus

Historical figures:

  • Abd al-Rahman
  • Abd al-Rahman III
  • King Alfonso VI


Reconquest of Toledo