South Asian Studies: Primary Sources/Citation

This guide provides information on South Asian Studies resources available at the University of Kansas Libraries and links to external information.

Primary vs. Secondary Sources

I. Primary sources enable the researcher to get as close as possible to what actually happened during an historical event or time period.  A primary source reflects the individual viewpoint of a participant or observer. 

  • Literary and cinematic works including short stories, novellas, novels, poems, feature films, documentaries and so on.
  • Diaries, journals, speeches, interviews, letters, memos, manuscripts and other papers in which individuals describe events in which they were participants or observers.
  • Memoirs and autobiographies. These may be less reliable than diaries or letters since they are usually written long after events occurred and may be distorted by bias, dimming memory or the revised perspective that may come with hindsight. 
  • Original records or document collected by government agencies: births, deaths, marriages; permits and licenses issued; census data, etc.
  • Records of organizations.   The minutes, reports, correspondence, etc. of an organization or agency serve as an ongoing record of the activity and thinking of that organization or agency.
  • Published materials (books, magazine and journal articles, newspaper  articles) written at the time about a particular event.  The important thing is to distinguish between material written at the time of an event as a kind of report, and material written much later, as historical analysis.
  • Photographs, audio recordings and moving pictures or video recordings,  documenting an event.
  • Research data,  field notes, data of scientific experiments, and
  • Artifacts of all kinds:physical objects

II. Secondary Sources

Secondary sources provide interpretation and analysis of primary sources.

  • Literature and book reviews
  • works of criticism and interpretation of the original  

Research Guides: Primary and secondary sources (Ithaca College Library)

Primary, secondary and tertiary sources (PDF file by Jana Krentz)

Primary vs. Secondary Sources (The Hartness Library 3:28)

Learn the difference between primary and secondary sources. (by Hartness Library CCV/Vermont Tech)

Bibliography 書目

From a references list or "works cited" list, we can see if a student have used primary sources, the subject scope of his research finds,  the type of resrouces used (book, journal/periodical, multi-media, website, etc.) and if the student has the ability attends to details. I usually look the references/works cited page first.

  • a list of sources (books, journals, websites, periodicals, etc.) one has used for researching a topic.
  • can also be called "references" 參考書目, 參考文獻 or "works cited" 引用文獻 depending on the style format one uses.
  • usually includes the bibliographic information (i.e., the author, title, publishing place, publisher, year, etc.).

Each individual bibliographic entry is called a citation.


EndNoteEndNote is a citation management software tool that helps user to collect, store, manage, and generate bibliographic citations. The program works with Microsoft Word Documents.

Import Citations -- Use EndNote connection files and filters
Manage EndNote Library -- Create, store, edit, sort, and searc references
Generat Bibliographies -- Insert and format citations (while writing a paper) and create bibliographies

Your download should begin automatically within a few seconds. If not, you can download the program directly by clicking the above link. If you experience difficulties during the download or installation of EndNote, please contact the IT Customer Service Center (, 864-8080)

View the EndNote X3 Basics online tutorial

EndNote Web

View EndNote Web Basics online tutorial

Using East Asian Scripts with Zotero



An open source tool use with the FireFox browser. It  captures and saves web pages and web citations easily, in addition to edit and sort stored information. Lacks the storage capabilities of Refworks and Endnote. [collect, organizecitesynccollaborate]


  • Give credit to the author/creator of an idea or creative work
  • Provide the source (book, journal article, website of a published or unpublished item) with the author, title, publisher and place of publication, URL, and date
  • Direct the reader to the original work consulted

Online Style Guides

EasyBib: the bibliography maker.

    Style Manuals

    There are several styles in which the sources of an assignment should be cited. The most popular of these styles are MLA, APA, Chicago etc. All these styles have their own set of guidelines.  If your professor has not assigned a particular style, you can choose one and use it consistently.  

    Multilingual Citations Using Chicago Style

    11.109 Titles of Japanese and Chinese works:

    "As in English, titles of books and periodicals are italicized, and titles of articles are set in roman and enclosed in quotation marks (see 8.154–95). The first word of a romanized title is always capitalized, as are many proper nouns (especially in Japanese).

    Chen Shiqi, Mingdai guan shougongye de yanjiu [Studies on government-operated handicrafts during the Ming dynasty], . . .

    Hua Linfu, “Qingdai yilai Sanxia diqu shuihan zaihai de chubu yanjiu” [A preliminary study of floods and droughts in the Three Gorges region since the Qing dynasty], Zhongguo shehui kexue 1 (1999): 168–79.
    Okamoto Yoshitomo, Jūrokuseiki Nichi-Ō kōtsūshi no kenkyū [Study of the intercourse between Japan and Europe during the sixteenth century], . . .
    Akiyama Kenzō, “Goresu wa Ryūkyūjin de aru” [The Gores and the Ryūkyūans], Shigaku-Zasshi (or Shigaku Zasshi) . . ."
    Source: The University of Chicago. (n.d.). 11.109 Titles of Japanese and Chinese works. Retrieved February 22, 2016, from The Chicago Manual of Style Online:

    11.110 Inclusion of Chinese and Japanese characters:

    "Chinese and Japanese characters, immediately following the romanized version of the item they represent, are sometimes necessary to help readers identify references cited or terms used. They are largely confined to bibliographies and glossaries. Where needed in running text, they may be enclosed in parentheses. The advent of Unicode has made it easier for authors to include words in non-Latin alphabets in their manuscripts, but publishers need to be alerted of the need for special characters in case particular fonts are needed for publication (see 11.2).

    Harootunian, Harry, and Sakai Naoki. “Nihon kenkyū to bunka kenkyū” 日本研究と文化研究. Shisō 思想 7 (July 1997): 4–53.

    Hua Linfu 華林甫. “Qingdai yilai Sanxia diqu shuihan zaihai de chubu yanjiu” 清代以來三峽地區水旱災害的初步硏究 [A preliminary study of floods and droughts in the Three Gorges region since the Qing dynasty]. Zhongguo shehui kexue 中國社會科學 1 (1999): 168–79.
    That year the first assembly of the national Diet was held and the Imperial Rescript on Education (kyōiku chokugo 敎育勅語) was issued."
    Source: The University of Chicago. (n.d.). 11.110 Inclusion of Chinese and Japanese characters. Retrieved February 22, 2016, from The Chicago Manual of Style Online: